Introduction: Make Justice: High School "Make It Real" Design Slam
This has been written by Autodesk Tinkercad as a teacher-led resource to support New England educators in entering the "Autodesk Make It Real" contest with their students; however, anyone may use this resource to kickstart design thinking in their classroom through this fun, technical challenge that encourages young people to identify problems of importance to them and to work together to create solutions.
- Apply design thinking methods to a real-world problem.
- Practice design and technical skills in a fun and nurturing environment.
- Develop an entrepreneurial mindset in communicating ideas.
Lesson overview: Design Slams are a challenge of creativity, skill, and presentation. They introduce the design thinking process by creating a fun environment for participants to look at problems differently and pursue solutions based on quick decision-making. Regardless of their skill level, participants have the opportunity to apply their design- and critical- thinking skills and pitch their ideas in a visible gathering that promotes youth leadership, industry and community involvement, and innovation. In this Design Slam, students will compete to create the best design that addresses the issues of affordable housing, disaster relief, and/or equitable access to resources.
Estimated instructional time: 5-10 hours
Step 1: Pose the Challenge
What happens when you combine your imagination with the technology at your fingertips? You can design and construct a future that is more sustainable, more beautiful, more healthy, and more just. By engaging your class in this Design Slam, your students will have the opportunity to rethink the things we make and how we make them in order to help people in their own communities.
Explore beliefs about poverty
“Public housing is considered ‘the hood,’ but people living in these places aren’t treated like neighbors. We need something different; we need something better. I am the product of the public housing system, and access to a safe place to live is a basic human right and an essential element of productivity,” said Pharrell Williams, the rapper-turned-social-entrepreneur, whose new Charter Communities concept was recently recognized with an XPRIZE.
In launching this Design Slam, you could use this quote from a celebrity your students are likely familiar with as a way to begin exploring their beliefs about poverty. As a next step, you could introduce this debate activity by Teaching Tolerance in order to probe more deeply into their thinking.
Summary of activity: (Note: Post a sign in one corner of the room that says “Strongly agree” and one in the opposite corner that says “Strongly disagree.” Make a line connecting the two corners with tape, chalk or string.) Think about this statement for a few moments [or “for a minute”], then go stand anywhere along the line that shows how strongly you agree or disagree with it. (Note: Read aloud the following statement: Individuals are responsible for living in poverty. They have no one to blame but themselves.) When everyone is standing on the line, talk with the people nearest you about why you chose that place to stand. Explain to each other your beliefs about who is responsible for poverty.
You might follow up this discussion by having students calculate the cost of basic monthly necessities where you live and compare them with the federal poverty guidelines and the federal minimum wage.
Introduce the design prompt
Here is a slideshow you may use to introduce the prompt:
"How might we use design to address: affordable housing, disaster relief, and/or equitable access to resources, such as public health? Create a model that illustrates your design. Develop a pitch that tells the story of how your design solves a problem for a user group in a new way."
Brainstorm a list of challenges and opportunities
Why does mass poverty exist? What are some underlying causes that could be addressed through designing something new —or redesigning something—in the built environment? Here are some ideas from Concern Worldwide:
- Inadequate access to clean water and nutritious food
- Little to no access to livelihood or jobs
- Poor education
- Climate change
- Lack of infrastructure
- Limited capacity of the government
- Lack of reserves
Provide some additional context and inspiration
Introduce your students to football star, James Develin, through showing students the film at the top of this step. James got his degree in mechanical engineering and is passionate about getting more students involved in design and making. His story includes how he overcame challenges to find inspiration to make anything.
Other potential sparks include:
- Rapper Kanye West's affordable housing design: prefabricated affordable Yeezy Home units that take inspiration from Tunisian architecture and might be used as underground homeless housing
- Factory OS: by building apartment units in a factory setting, it can produce housing more quickly, with as much as 70% less waste than standard methods, while creating new job opportunities for a nontraditional workforce
- The Future of the City is Childless: how a new wave of gentrification is changing the face of urban areas
- French researchers 3D print an emergency shelter: imagine that, in a disaster, a boat arrives with a robot and raw materials, and there, on demand, in 20 to 30 minutes, emergency housing can be realized
- 3D-printed homes: can be built for less than $4,000 in just 24 hours
- Using computation to design disaster-resistant homes: leveraging technology to retrofit buildings in Medellin and Bogota, Columbia
- Ori Systems: a robotically controlled, space-saving furniture system that can add more than 100 square feet of usable space to apartment units
- Industry affordable housing design challenge: inspired by Abod Shelters, which provides affordable housing wherever it is needed with homes that can be shipped anywhere and take one day to build
- Habitat for Humanity: affordable quality housing statistics and how Habitat is helping
- Container farming in the city: radio clip about urban farmers who are thinking outside the box by bringing their farms inside the box in the form of shipping containers
- EcoRise: inspires a new generation of leaders to design a sustainable future for all with curriculum and school-based programs that empower youth to tackle real-world challenges in their schools and communities by teaching sustainability, design innovation, and social entrepreneurship. You may be eligible for a free subscription. Learn more about this here.
YEEZY Home by Kanye West: the first renderings of West's low income housing project made of prefabricated concrete
Begin with empathy
You will likely have to spend time teaching about empathy - its meaning and how to consider “Empathy” as part of the design process. Start with having students create a user profile - a "persona" of someone who may currently be affected by poverty, whom they will refer to during the rest of the design process. They should make this persona as concrete as possible. Give the persona a name, an age, a family, friends, hobbies, etc. The more real the persona seems, the more empathy the students can project when moving on to the other aspects of the project. There are lots of approaches to teaching about empathy, such as these suggestions from Edutopia.
Here is a great article from the Design Museum Foundation that includes a graphic organizer for creating an empathy map with the next generation of design thinkers.
Consider the learning outcomes
This challenge is designed so that it can be adapted by you (the expert educator!) to meet the needs of your students, as well as the expectations for the subject area you teach. With this in mind, you may enhance this challenge by emphasizing certain relevant concepts or skills. For example:
- Science: Earth and Human Activity; Engineering Design
- Math: Geometry; Modeling
- English/Literacy: Presentation of knowledge and ideas; communication, teamwork, problem solving, critical thinking, and research skills
- History/Civics: Build knowledge about federal Housing Acts; the issue of gentrification; the refugee crisis; local connections to the aforementioned issues
- Art: Use of shapes and forms, such as organic, geometric, positive, negative, and varieties of symmetry; Critical response (during student presentations)
Step 2: Provide Some Training and Get Hands-on
While students may begin building their model in paper, recyclables, and other craft materials, ultimately they should also create a digital design as part of the Design Slam.
Here is information about some free design tools that your students may use to solve problems in designing for a better world.
Students may work individually or in pairs or teams. Because one of the objectives is for learners to gain technical skills, you should try to keep teams small enough, so that everyone has a chance to get hands on with the technology.
Tinkercad (for all ages)
Tinkercad is a valuable resource for students to bring their ideas from mind to design in minutes. It is also a FREE, easy-to-use, browser-based creativity tool for teaching 3D design and more! (Did we mention FREE?!)
After you have provided a brief overview of Tinkercad for your students, (including a quick demo, such as the one provided in the slideshow,) let your students try out some moves through these short starter lessons. Completing all seven should take no more than 30 minutes, and once they have mastered the basics, they should be ready to begin their own creations.
If you are interested in building a stronger background in Tinkercad and its use in the classroom BEFORE facilitating this design slam yourself, here are some resources:
- Slideshow explaining Tinkercad and its use in the classroom (aligned with ISTE Standards)
- Tinkercad Teachers Webinar on Sparking Future Makers (featuring a demo on how to teach electronics through design- and community- based learning)
- Free online course for learning both Tinkercad and Fusion 360, (a professional design tool that is the "next step" for learners 13 and older after learning Tinkercad.)
- Tinkercad Teachers Webinar on Building a Maker Mindset at Your School (featuring a demo on how to quickly design a physical space in Tinkercad and then render it in Fusion 360)
For future reference, you may also provide students with this handy guide, created by educator John Umekubo.
Fusion 360 for teaching product design and manufacturing with students 13 and older
Even if your students are Tinkercad pros who are 13 or older and ready to move on to a more powerful design tool, it's still a fine idea for them to use Tinkercad first as a quick way of prototyping.
If your students are 13 or older and not quite ready to move from Tinkercad during this Design Slam, no worries! There are plenty of possibilities within Tinkercad for "older" learners to create sophisticated 3D designs with electronics, both through direct manipulation or using code.
If students need some encouragement around the cool things you can design with Tinkercad beyond the familiar, have them check out the winning designs for the European Space Agency's Moon Camp Challenge.
For those students who desire to make the transition from Tinkercad into pursuing career paths at the convergence of design and manufacturing, Fusion 360 is the right tool. Using the Tinkercad-To-Fusion workflow is a great way to kickstart this process.
Autodesk Design Academy's free Introduction to 3D Modeling course also provides young innovators with self-paced instruction on how to explore and iterate using computer aided design.
Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) tools for teaching how to design for the built environment with students 13 and older
Today, manufacturing and construction are coming together as one. This is being spurred by advances in technologies like 3D printing, machine learning, robotics, connected devices, generative design, mixed reality, simulation, drones, and more.
The use of these technologies is converging and evolving - changing how we see the world, and how we can build it differently.
By 2050 almost 70% of the world’s population will live in cities, with the middle-class growing faster than ever before. For our planet, this means more demand for buildings and infrastructure and even greater demands on our natural resources.
Today the built environment consumes 40% of the world’s global energy, 40% of the planet’s natural resources, 25% of the water, and emits approximately 1/3 of greenhouse gas emissions.
By growing your students' skills and knowledge in the AEC fields, they will be able to build a life and career that is focused on making a better world.
Autodesk Design Academy offers free introductory courses for young innovators with self-paced instruction on how to use the same tools as AEC industry professionals such as:
- FormIt 360: Learn to sketch, collaborate, analyze, and iterate early-stage design concepts on your tablet or web browser.
- AutoCAD: Learn the computer-aided drafting software program used for creating blueprints for buildings, bridges, and computer chips.
- Revit: Learn to design, simulate, visualize, and collaborate in order to leverage the advantages of the interconnected data within a BIM model.
The opportunity to reimagine the THINGS we make, and how we MAKE them is now.
Are you anxious about embarking on this design journey with your students? Here are some words of encouragement from English teacher Cathy O'Flaherty who answered a similar call to adventure.
Step 3: Introduce a Design Thinking Framework
In the world of design, problem = opportunity.
There are many different frameworks that are called "design thinking" with mostly subtle variations; the most important constant is that it has a human-centered core - meaning that the first and most critical step in the process involves empathizing with the end user of whatever it is you are designing.
After students have had a chance to generate some ideas and explore them using prototyping materials and design tools, it is now a great time to remind them about the end user and to prompt them to develop a more detailed plan for solving a problem that is relevant to the theme of this Design Slam: Make Justice.
The Innovator's Compass, a framework created by Ela Ben-Ur, is a highly learnable, uncomplicated approach that helps people find better ways to move forward that are grounded in the principles that matter most.
If you are interested in learning more about the principles of design thinking and its application in a school setting, this Instructable provides a deep dive.
Step 4: Imagine, Design, Make
Move it. Size it. Scale it. Group it. This is a chance for your students to demonstrate 3D design literacy and show off their skills. For more information on this, here is a great resource for getting your students acting and talking like real design professionals.
In addition to technical skills, this design challenge is also meant to empower your students as innovators. Encourage them to use their imagination to challenge the status quo - to show creativity, cleverness, and simplicity in exploring form and function.
Remind them that their end product should also make an impact: Design can be a super power in addressing real-world problems. They should continuously stay grounded in the needs and goals of the end user.
When they have completed their designs, they will also be expected to tell their design story. While they are immersed in the design process, you may pause them periodically to stop and reflect: What did you learn? Why should others care? Why does your design matter? How could it make the world better?
If you are looking for ideas on how to offer constructive feedback to students on their designs, here are some great talking points for helping students think through ways of making their projects better aligned with federal construction industry standards.
Also, if you are asking students to incorporate a shipping container into their design, here are the measurements: Containers typically come in two sizes, either 20 feet by 8 feet or 40 feet by 8 feet. The smaller of the two equals about 160 square feet of living space, whereas the larger container gets you 320 square feet.
Step 5: Infuse an Entrepreneurial Mindset
Kids are natural innovators.
Did you know that the popsicle, ear muffs AND the trampoline were invented by kids?
Similar to design thinking, thinking like an entrepreneur means looking at the world through the lens of opportunity. It also means failing fast and learning from mistakes, finding new ways to create value, and turning ideas into action.
As your students are wrapping up the first iteration of their designs, you should start getting them ready to share their ideas with a wider audience. Most good entrepreneurial pitches include a value proposition.
A value proposition* should aim to:
- Acknowledge the problem and pains felt by your target audience
- Show an understanding of their needs and hopes
- Quantify the benefits of your product
- Highlight the difference between your solution and the status quo
Depending on the ages or ability levels of your students, you might have your students create a poster or prepare a slideshow that expresses the value of their design and tells the story of their process. This should also include calling out specific features of the design.
Watch how Ori Systems does this in their pitch video at the top of this step, illustrating their value proposition (One room. A hundred ways.) without using any words.
3D modeling software like Tinkercad and Fusion 360 can also be a powerful entrepreneurial storytelling tool. Read more about this in the Tinkercad blog.
Have you ever wanted to “wow” an audience with your Tinkercad design in a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation? Tinkercad has recently added the ability to download your design as a GLTF 3D file format that you can drag into your presentation deck.
Step 6: Set the Stage for the Pitch
Once your students are done composing their design stories, there should be time for each team to present to the larger group for feedback and validation. If possible, it would be beneficial to also invite other stakeholders, such as students, industry and community partners, or school leaders to hear the teams' ideas and offer feedback.
If you haven't yet already, be sure to review the scoring rubric with students before they present.
Step 7: Celebrate Innovative Thinking and Real-world Application
Another way to recognize how your students have grown as a result of this design experience is to share your collective learning with others. You can even do this by adding a note to this Instructable! Teacher Notes can be added to any Instructable to show how it was used in the classroom. Educators can upload photos, lesson plans, and other resources to demonstrate their favorite ways to bring hands-on learning to their students.